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Hearing (Phonological) Problems & Dyslexia
Hearing (Phonological) Problems & Dyslexia, Glue Ear & Dyslexia
In Britain, over eight million people have hearing loss; over 25,000 are children. Deafness is often associated with older people. But many are born deaf or profoundly deaf – others become so after an illness. One million children (0-8 years) will experience temporary deafness caused by ‘glue ear’.
With so much research carried out over the last few decades, it is now universally accepted that some people with dyslexia have problems with hearing (auditory) skills.
Some people who go for a standard hearing test will receive the all-clear, yet they can still suffer from some form of hearing problem.
It is difficult to understand why a child should be cleared for their hearing yet still appear to have hearing problems. This is because some people seem hypersensitive to specific sounds/frequencies, asymmetrical. If someone perceives sounds differently in their right or left ear, this can lead to problems with sound discrimination – a significant problem for people with dyslexia.
Another consideration when looking at auditory problems is the crucial part that the brain plays. Most therapies below are designed to normalise the auditory system, changing how the brain processes and organises the input received from the ears.
Many related therapies are listed in this section to help you. The different therapies look at the possibility of normalising hearing to aid learning. In that case, a full assessment of the person’s auditory system by an audiologist should be carried out to ascertain if the person is suitable for the type of therapy on offer.
Auditory Training may seem quite complicated, but it simply means – thoroughly testing the ears and training them to listen and respond to appropriate treatment. This treatment may take a few months or several years; it can help tremendously if successful.
Often the only sign of glue ear in the very young child is when they fail to start talking properly. However, these problems are usually picked up when the child has a six-month hearing test and a screening test just before starting school.
If glue ear is not treated, these children may continue to have talking, reading, and writing problems.
There are several different ear tests available; some work on high-frequency notes. Therefore, you must return to your doctor or health visitor and ask for another check-up if you feel the problem may still exist.
Glue Ear & Dyslexia
What is glue ear? Glue ear is a common condition in childhood. The tube can become obstructed by adenoids at the back of the nose, the air cannot enter the middle ear, and the cavity fills with fluid. The eardrum becomes dark looking. As time goes on, the fluid becomes thicker until it has the consistency of thick glue. Often the only sign is deafness, children’s schooling may suffer, and behaviour may deteriorate.
In many cases, it will clear up by itself, but in severe cases, treatment will involve making a small hole in the drum, usually under anaesthetic. A tube (grommet) will usually be inserted into the ear, which often immediately helps with the child’s hearing problems. Adenoids generally disappear at puberty; most children with glue ears do not need treatment after this time. The hearing is usually restored to normal.
Glue Ear was treated using a grommet for many years, and the child had to have an operation lasting about 30 minutes. However, a V-tub device can now be used to insert a grommet in a second without surgery. It is hoped that in the future, GPs may be able to fit grommets without the need to go to the hospital.
A.R.R.O.W. & Dyslexia
A.R.R.O.W & Dyslexia
by Dr Colin Lane
The Improvement of Listening, Reading and Spelling Skills of Dyslexic Students
Hearing is a physiological state, which depends upon an intact outer, middle and inner ear hearing system. In the outer ear system, the sound is carried through the ear canal to the eardrum. At the eardrum, the sound is conducted into the middle ear system through a series of bones. These, in turn, send sound into the inner ear system. In the inner ear system, the sound is changed into electrical impulses before being sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. Any defect in either of the outer, middle or inner ear systems can cause a hearing loss. This hearing loss can, in turn, cause problems in speech, communication and literacy skills. Most deaf school leavers have experienced severe problems in reading and spelling despite having a normal range of intelligence.
Fortunately, a greater proportion of dyslexic children has an intact hearing system. However, despite having normal hearing, they usually have other auditory problems.
Listening, here defined as auditory attention, does not require a fully intact hearing system. Listening is an acquired skill. Listening varies from child to child among the normally hearing or hearing impaired populations.
There is strong evidence to show that there are normally hearing students of all ages and abilities who experience severe problems when listening to speech in background noise. These auditory problems have the most significant effect on their progress in terms of reading and spelling.
Auditory Attention Span
Listening involves focusing on and maintaining auditory attention. The listener needs to select the spoken word and then reject any relevant input such as background noise. Some mature motivated students maintain auditory attention for 45 minutes or more. In younger or easily distracted children, such attention may only be a few minutes. There are many cases of students with reading and spelling difficulties experiencing severe auditory attention problems. Auditory attention is trainable.
The Arrow Technique
Young students learn better by listening to themselves and indeed prefer to listen to their own voices. The student’s own voice heard within the head, is that which is universally applied in memory tasks and for internal thought. A technique called A.R.R.O.W. has been developed from the use of the self-voice. A.R.R.O.W. is an acronym for Aural – Read – Respond – Oral – Write. The student listens to the tutor’s voice through headsets and repeats it. At the same time, the student reads the text. The recording of the students self-voice then forms the basis of the Arrow work. This work requires the student to take down dictation from passages of information, and precision spellings. The student checks the accuracy of the work undertaken. A.R.R.O.W. programme’s are centred upon National Curriculum requirements. When used in further education colleges, vocational and other curriculum work may be used.
The ARROW self voice technique can make a swift and dramatic impact on the listening, auditory processing and literacy skills of dyslexic students. Trained ARROW teachers and assistants are achieving up to eight months of progress in reading and/or seven months progress in spelling within a total of two hours one to one tuition time. This tuition time can be split up as necessary. The students are required to work a further four hours, a little at a time, on their own, in order to complete a programme. Some teachers are reporting up to two or even three years of progress following a series of two or three short interventions.
Students quickly learn how to attend more effectively. Some students with attention problems can improve their listening in background noise up to and beyond the level of an adequate listener.
In addition to the literacy and listening improvements other learning skills improve. Teachers report that student’s self-esteem rises as does handwriting and their general classroom performance.
differentiation, short term memory and the tutor
The Arrow programme recognises the strong need for all reading and spelling work to be set within the student’s ability level. Differentiation is, therefore, a cornerstone of the system together with the importance of the working short-term memory. Precision spellings are set within word families, frequently used words and similar-sounding words having a dissimilar letter pattern. The Arrow tutor quickly establishes a starting level with a student on the programme. The tutor next helps the student make as near a perfect recording of the self-voice as possible whilst ensuring that the student remains on task.
Flexibility of Training
The Arrow system is so flexible that Arrow training for students can be given within a week or spread over several weeks according to timetable/curriculum requirements. Students can work on our own or within groups.
Current and Future Technology Requirements
A special audiocassette recorder is used to make recordings of the student’s voice. An ordinary cassette player can be used when the student is listening to the tape. The Arrow approach is now being used on CD-ROM.
Arrow help is available for students through mainstream education. Where students cannot access these facilities Arrow provision also operates within specialist Arrow Centres. These Centres can be at schools or colleges already using Arrow but offers help to students from outside their own particular school or college. In addition, tutors operating from selected sites or operating from their own premises can provide help. Students attending Arrow Centres usually attend on a short once-weekly lesson for five or six weeks or undertake distance learning programme’s.
Arrow Tutor Training
Arrow Tutor training programme’s operate on a regional basis. The Arrow programme has received national accreditation as an Advanced BTEC Award for Arrow Tutors. The training programme is essentially practical. During the course, trainee tutors attend a regionally based Arrow Centre for four separate days. The remaining part of the programme requires a tutor to use the technique with their students. A report is submitted at the end of the third term of the programme. The course is open to professionals in the field of education and health. In some cases, selected parents have been trained to work with their children.
Training courses are available for children and teachers.
For further information, please contact ARROW at – Self-Voice.
Music Therapy & Dyslexia
Music Therapy is used within a therapeutic relationship to address people’s physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs.
Music Therapy is carried out by music therapists, who use their training as musicians, clinicians, and researchers to effect changes in, amongst others, cognitive, physical and emotional skills. The Music Therapists assess the strengths and needs of each client and then indicate the type of treatment required.
This could involve: singing; creating; dancing to; and listening to music.
Music therapy helps people develop better concentration and awareness of decreased sound sensitivity.
Music Therapy can help people with dyslexia, ADHD and other learning difficulties by helping with auditory discrimination of sounds (a significant problem for dyslexic people) and helping with organizational skills. It also allows clients to stay calm and increases creativity. Clients who have used this therapy say they have an: improved attention span, better memory skills and increased self-esteem.
Clients develop a greater sense of awareness and confidence, which leads to improved self-esteem.
Advice, Help & Support for People with Dyslexia
Advice, Help & Support for People with Dyslexia
British Deaf Association
Contains the latest information about the deaf association and the British Sign Language.
National Deaf Children’s Society
Helps families, parents and carers to maximise their skills and abilities.
RNID (Royal National Institute for Deaf People)
Leading charity campaigns for improvements in facilities and services.The RNID are operating a campaign allowing people to take an instant telephone hearing check. The whole check will take you less than 5 minutes. Visit their website for further details.
Success for Kids with Hearing Loss
If any of your kids also have any hearing issues there are some great resources at:
Website: Success for Kids with Hearing Loss
Tomatis & Audiology (Hearing Problems)
In 1982, a French Ear, Nose and Throat specialist, Dr Alfred Tomatis, invented an ‘Electronic Ear’ device.
Tomatis used this device to normalize hearing and the way the brain processes information. He believed that the root cause of many learning difficulties was due to the ‘way we listen’ and if we did not ‘listen’ properly, we could have impaired hearing. This, in turn, could lead to dyslexia. He went on to develop a highly effective technique to remedy this problem.
Tomatis was not only a leader in his field; he was also one of the first audiologists that believed that dyslexia was related more to the ear than the eye (as is the belief in other medical areas).
The method uses specially modified auditory feedback in a broad range of frequencies; this approach is beneficial for children with auditory processing problems. (A lot of people with dyslexia have auditory processing problems.)
These treatments aim was to re-pattern a child’s hearing range.
Auditory Integration Training (AIT) & Dyslexia
Auditory Integration Training was developed in 1982 by a French ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) specialist, Dr Guy Berard, to normalize hearing and how the brain processes information. Berard realised that many people with acute hearing problems often had learning disorders such as dyslexia, ADHD and other learning difficulties.
Some people have different hearing levels in each ear. Others can have hearing problems: hypersensitivity to certain frequencies; when right and left ears perceive sounds in different ways, this can lead to poor sound discrimination – leading to learning difficulties.
AIT helps people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties by developing better concentration and decreased sound sensitivity. Berard’s book: ‘Hearing Equals Behaviour’, (ISBN: 0-87983-600-8) published by Keats has some good case samples.
Some students with ADHD have also reported less impulsivity and restlessness and a reduction in distractibility.
Lexiphone & Dyslexia
The Lexiphone method was developed in the mid-’70s by a psychiatrist and Professor of Psychology, Dr Isi Beller, who has spent more than 25 years researching dyslexia.
An audio-feedback uses artificial means to re-educate automatic language processing without the awareness of the student.
The Lexiphone method retrains auditory attention and speech awareness during selected listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities.
The Lexiphone method is said to help people with auditory problems and dyslexia.
Interactive Metronome (IM) & Dyslexia
For centuries, musicians have used a metronome to help them keep time. Recently, it has hit the headlines as work is being carried out with clients with dyslexia and ADHD.
Interactive Metronome apparently has undergone scientific trials and, is said, amongst other things, shown improvement in Attention and Concentration, Motor Control and Coordination.
The Metronome helps train the brain to plan, sequence and process information more effectively through the repetition of interactive exercises. The Interactive Metronome program involves repeated hand, toe, and heel exercises.
Interactive Metronome therapy is said to help people with many disorders, including Autism Disorder, ADHD, dyslexia and many others.
SAMONAS & Dyslexia
SAMONAS is an acronym of ‘Spectral Activated Music of Optimal Natural Structure’. It is another form of electronically tailored music therapy developed in Germany by a physicist, Ingo Steinbach.
The system is said to train the auditory system to process the full range of sound without distortion, hypersensitivity, or frequency loss.
SAMONAS is said to help people with hearing loss, improved speech, hypersensitive hearing, auditory processing problems, ADHD, dyslexia and other difficulties. Some therapists claim it can also help with auditory discrimination problems.
Overcoming Addiction for the Sensory Impaired
“A Guide to Overcoming Addiction for the Sensory Impaired”
I have just completed an interesting article about Overcoming Addiction for the Sensory Impaired. This collates many of my findings over the years.
The title of this article is “A Guide to Overcoming Addiction for the Sensory Impaired”, and it covers:
• The role of childhood experiences
• Additional risk factors for the sensory impaired
• Substance use disorders & the disabled
• Treatment considerations for the deaf
• Treatment considerations for the blind
• Components of treatment
• How Treatment is Tailored to the Needs of the Sensory Impaired
• Where to Find help
You can find my article here:
Read this useful guide to addiction and the sensory impaired by Ollie Clark.
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