Dysgraphia is a Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD).

On this is part of the site you will find extensive information on:

What is Dysgraphia?; Definition of Dysgraphia; What Causes Dysgraphia?; Dysgraphia Checklist; Dysgraphia Assessment / Test; Dysgraphia Aids & Equipment; Dysgraphia Treatment – How Can You Help?; Software for Dysgraphia; Dysgraphia FAQ’s; Employers & Dysgraphia; Handwriting Groups; Help & Advice and a Dysgraphia Book List.

You will also find a section on: Looking for schools that specialise in Dyslexia / Dysgraphia; Psychologists who can test for Dyslexia / Dysgraphia; Test Centres for Dyslexia / Dysgraphia and how to find a specialist tutor in your area.

What is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia (pronounced: dis-graf-eea) affects approximately 10% of the population. Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder, and dysgraphia symptoms are characterised by the inability to write correctly. Dysgraphia, in fact, refers specifically to the failure to perform operations in handwriting. It could be described as an extreme difficulty with fine-motor skills.

Young boy in elementary/primary school uniform working. Isolated. CopyspaceFine-motor skills are essential for good writing. Students with dysgraphia symptoms may have problems with the simplest of writing tasks; their handwriting will barely be legible; the writing will appear incorrect; distorted; have letters of different sizes and different size spaces between letters. Student’s have particular difficulties following a straight line and keeping to a margin. Students with dysgraphia find it particularly painful when writing by hand. Dysgraphia Checklist

Definition of Dysgraphia

‘Dysgraphia means having severe problems with the written word, which is affected by extreme difficulty with fine-motor skills – in spite of having normal intelligence and ability’.

by Dr David Cowell & Maria Chivers, 2008

It is essential to recognise dysgraphia as soon as possible before it impacts on a child’s self-esteem. Just as there is no single set of signs that characterise dyslexia, there is no one cause of dysgraphia. The earlier dysgraphia is diagnosed, the easier it is to ensure the student receives the correct support at home, school or in the workplace. Although there is no cure, the problems can be alleviated with the proper tuition.

These difficulties often result in considerable frustration bearing in mind that people with dysgraphia are usually at least average intelligence.

Where does the Word Dysgraphia come from?

Girl doing homework

Dysgraphia comes from Greek words:

‘Dys’       =  means ‘difficulty with or poor’.
‘Graphia’ =  means ‘handwriting’.


Dysgraphia means ‘difficulty with handwriting’.


Dyslexia and other Learning Difficulties Book

‘Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties – The Essential Guide’ – Book

My book: ‘Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties – A Parent’s Guide’ has been very well received over the years.  It is useful for both parents and teachers. It contains extensive information on dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia and other specific learning difficulties (SpLDs).

For a fuller description of ‘Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties – The Essential Guide‘ please go to Amazon.

Dyslexia and Alternative Therapies

‘Dyslexia and Alternative Therapies’ – Book

My book: ‘Dyslexia and Alternative Therapies‘ contains information on a wide range of alternative therapies and the way they can help people with dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia and other specific learning difficulties (SpLDs).

Available in softback or eBook.

For a fuller description of ‘Dyslexia and Alternative Therapies, please go to Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

What Causes Dysgraphia?

What causes Dysgraphia? We still do not know very much about dysgraphia, but it is thought the cause of this disorder could be due to a language disorder or damage to the motor system.

At present, there is hardly any research on dysgraphia, and therefore it is difficult to give definitive answers to this question.

Dysgraphia Sub-Types

There appears to be several sub-types of dysgraphia. Deuel (1994) divided dysgraphia into three sub-types:

*What are the different types of Dysgraphia?

While dysgraphia may be broadly classified as follows, many individual variations affect both treatment and prognosis:

1. Dyslexic Dysgraphia

In ‘Dyslexic Dysgraphia’, the spontaneously written text is illegible, especially when the text is complex. Oral spelling is poor, but drawing and copying of written text are relatively normal. Finger-tapping speed (a measure of fine-motor speed) is average.


2. Motor Dysgraphia

In ‘Motor Dysgraphia’, both spontaneously written and copied text may be illegible, oral spelling is normal, and drawing is usually problematic. Finger-tapping speed is abnormal.


3. Spatial Dysgraphia

In ‘Spatial Dysgraphia’, people display illegible writing, whether spontaneously produced or copied. Oral spelling is normal. Finger-tapping speed is average, but drawing is very problematic.

* Deuel, D. Developmental Dysgraphia 1995

What is interesting with this Deuel’s research in 1994 is there is no mention of; Phonological Dysgraphia and Visual Dysgraphia that was mentioned by the ‘National Institute of Neurological Disorders and stroke’ (NINDS) – ( Dysgraphia 2.doc NINDS), in June 2004.

While this is no longer on the NINDS’ website (or at least I couldn’t find it today), does this mean that these two problems do not exist, or there is no research to support this? For now, I am leaving them on the site, until we can find out any further information.

Wie bitte?

1. Phonological Dysgraphia

In**Phonological dysgraphia – writing words as a pure ‘sound’ spelling which is incorrect, e.g. writing ‘brought’ as ‘brot’ or ‘station’ as ‘stayshun’.


Measurement of peripheral vision done by optometrist while performing visual field test

2. Visual Dysgraphia

In Visual dysgraphia – writing words, which are correctly spelt apart from some letters being reversed, e.g. ‘drink’ as ‘brink’ or the bizarre or abnormal and
‘irregular formation of letters. They may sometimes look okay, but they have been produced in an abnormal order of pen strokes.

**Dysgraphia 2.doc NINDS

Dysgraphia Treatment

As dysgraphia is not a disease, there is no ‘treatment’ for it.

However, there are many things you can do to help a student with dysgraphia / handwriting problems:

• By using Multi-Sensory Teaching Methods.
• Developing skills through play.
• Using the correct handwriting aids.
• Using specialist computer software, and
• Lots and lots of encouragement!

You will find lots more information on dysgraphia treatment under the section ‘Improve your Handwriting’.

    Dysgraphia & Touch-Typing


    Touch-Typing Programmes

    There are a lot of ‘Touch Typing’ packages available. However, I think for people with dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyspraxia, ADHD or other learning difficulties (SpLD’s), it is advisable to use programmes that were specially designed with ‘dyslexic’ type problems in mind. The programmes listed below, have been tested and used for years. They are excellent.

    Dysgraphia – Touch Typing Programmes

    KAZ – Typing Programme
    Children love this because it has a big yellow bird that helps to teach them to type. Designed for children 6+ years (This company now has a Dyslexia Edition which has been developed by the ‘Dyslexia Research Trust’.)

    ‘Nessy Fingers Touch Typing’
    ‘Nessy Fingers Touch Typing’, helps children improve spelling and keyboard skills. Designed for children between 8-12 years.

    Touch-type Read and Spell (TTRS)
    Children who learn to touch type via a multisensory course like Touch-type Read and Spell also have their phonics skills reinforced.

    Type to Learn 3
    Students embark on time-travel missions to learn keyboarding skills.
    Smart Kids

    Touch Typing Review


    Why not give your child an advantage over the holidays and get them to touch-type? I am sure you would not mind sitting with them (although you don’t have to) for ¹15 minutes a day for five days.

    This will give them an excellent start when they return to school.

    KAZ is for children from six years of age, he is a ‘big bird’, and the kids love him.

    The programme basically has five phrases, and each sentence will take about fifteen minutes to complete. ¹(Now the caveat on this is there is never any pressure on the child; it may take 15 minutes, 30 or just ten, they have to do it at their own pace.)

    When they have completed the five phrases, they will have used all of their fingers and covered the entire keyboard.

    After that, it is just practice to increase the speed and to get the whereabouts of the keys to ‘long-term memory’ (that’s my expression, not theirs).

    There are also sections for punctuation etc., but they are separate, and you can choose to complete them or not.

    My husband and one of our sons can type at 40wpm, using two fingers, so, I don’t necessarily believe in touch-typing per se, but I firmly believe that everyone should know their way around a keyboard well.

    If they know the keyboard, when they want to write something, they can just get on and type – it definitely makes writing more accessible.

    There are different programmes available; one for children with dyslexia, junior children, and even a version for children with ADHD. Furthermore, it is not just confined to children, so you may want to have a go yourself!

    For further information, go to KAZ  or telephone 01926 423424. The lady on the other end of the phone is Sheraleen Bragenza. She is very easy to talk to, and she can answer any questions you may have.

    by Maria Chivers


    Congratulations to KAZ, they have just been
    ‘voted #1 Best Typing Tutor of the Year’ for 2018.


    Dysgraphia Posts